This system uses the probability of killing a female bear in any given hunt to determine the total harvest allocation. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. (2004), Proctor et al. 2000. Based on stable isotope signatures, the contribution of vegetation to diets of adult female Grizzly Bears ranged from 19% in coastal Alaska to 98% in Kluane National Park and Reserve (Hilderbrand et al. 2005; 2012; ASDRACA 2010), the trajectory of small populations may be determined not by direct limiting factors per se, but rather by random variation in sex ratios at birth or other parameters that arise from random variation among individuals in their tendency to survive or reproduce (including genetics). Carrière, Suzanne. Populations in BC, Yukon, NT, and Nunavut are subject to legal hunting, and all regions support and/or formally recognize the right to First Nations, Métis, and/or Inuit subsistence hunting. Taylor, pers. At the fringe of Grizzly Bear distribution, especially in southern BC and Alberta where population fragmentation due to highways, human settlement, and agricultural expansion is noted (e.g., Proctor et al. 2001. Boyce, D.R. Reason for designation The global distribution of this large-bodied carnivore has declined by over 50% since the 1800s, with western Canada representing a significant core of the current North American range. Published online. Proctor. Not only are they the largest bear found in North America, they are also the most dangerous to humans. Theberge, J., and S. Stevens. Not at Risk (NAR)**A wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances. Gibeau, M.L. The fact that grizzly bears once lived in a prairie landscape may explain some of their behaviour when threatened. Grizzly Bear habitat associationsare strongly seasonal and typically reflect local plant development and prey concentrations. But the larger regional population remains highly fragmented as local densities vary greatly and bears have not recovered in many areas. Are there extreme fluctuations in index of area of occupancy? While the majority of their living range is Alaska and Northwestern Canada, they are also found in small areas of the lower 48 states, including: Northwestern Montana, Yellowstone National Park, Northern Utah and a very small section of Northwestern Washington. Rep. No. : 819-953-3215Fax: 819-994-3684Email: COSEWIC/COSEPAC@ec.gc.caWebsite: www.cosewic.gc.ca. For example, it is expected to exacerbate fragmentation (Fleishman and MacNalley 2007) and negatively influence salmon runs in coastal BC (Horejsi et al. Grizzly bears have male-biased dispersal, with subadult male Grizzly Bears usually dispersing upon independence, whereas subadult females are commonly more philopatric (LeFranc et al. Because of their large land-area requirements and use of a broad array of habitats, and the complexity of their relationships with other species, they have frequently been considered as an ‘umbrella’ species, whereby conservation attention is assumed to confer benefits to less-known co-occurring species (Herrero et al. Endangered (E)A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction. Grizzly Bear hunting in most of the Mackenzie Mountains is available only to NT residents, and there is a lifetime bag limit of one bear for non-residents. J.A. Phyl. By contrast, in the central and northern parts of the range where there has been significantly less human influence, bear movements were more extensive and individual genotypes follow an isolation-by-distance pattern, indicating substantial gene flow within a continuously distributed population (Paetkau et al. This animal is not plentiful, although common enough and too common to suit some of the natives who have a wholesome dread of it. 1997; 1998; Proctor et al. Subpopulations are enclosed within dotted polygons. Geographic variation in size of North American brown bears, Ursus arctos L., as indicated by condylobasal length. Reproductive characteristics of grizzly bears in the Kugluktuk area, Northwest Territories, Canada. and F.W. Austin, M.S., D.C. Heard, and A.N. Defining landscapes suitable for restoration of grizzly bears Ursus arctos in Idaho. The demand and harvest rate by residents for Grizzly Bears in NT is low. Savard, R. 1985. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia.Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op. 2000. Is there an observed continuing decline in number of mature individuals? The proposed route cuts directly through medium to high density areas of their distribution, much of which is currently inaccessible by road. Proctor, M. F. 2003. Males immigrating to replace hunter-killed males were considered potentially infanticidal, and resident females avoided those bears and the high-quality habitats they used. In some cases, natural and anthropogenic habitat alterations can be beneficial to bear populations (e.g., enhancement of early forest successional stages through fire or timber harvest). 2006. Quebec City: Ministère des affaires culturelles du Québec. They are more dangerous because they don't have much contact with humans - so they may see us as prey when they are hungry. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos in Canada. Rausch, R.L. They also eat mice; sometimes the stomach is just a bag full of mice when you open it up. August 2010. Of greater concern to Grizzly Bear status and conservation are those activities that result in functional habitat loss. McLoughlin. Mattson, D.J. In BC, it is illegal to kill a bear <2 years old, or any bear in its company (usually its mother). University of Calgary. 3. Version 1.2. Several authors have pointed out links between salmon abundance and Grizzly Bear productivity, as measured by litter and body sizes, population densities, and/or reproductive output (Hilderbrand et al. 2012). 72 pp. 2011. A meta-analysis of 6 studies from different parts of Grizzly Bear range yielded a range of 25.6-59%, with a midpoint of 42% bears (Schwartz et al. 1990. Population condition ranged from relatively secure units with >500 bears to several small units of <100 bears. Low numbers (7 mortalities in 20 years; Bertch and Gibeau 2010) of motor vehicle collisions in Banff National Park, relative to the very high visitation rate by humans, may, in part, be due to the construction of wildlife fences and wildlife underpasses and overpasses (Clevenger and Waltho 2000). upland boreal and mountain forests), it can positively influence the abundance and distribution of various foods consumed by bears (Milakovic et al. Grizzly bear population estimate and characteristics in the Anderson and Horton Rivers area, Northwest Territories, 1987-89. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9:213-221. 2007); however, sightings are becoming more frequent. Theberge, J., S. Herrero, and S. Jevons. Brown (grizzly) and polar bears. Maraj, Ramona. Grizzly bears and forestry. Reinhart. Bullock, S.J. Mol. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Encounter competition between bears and cougars: some ecological implications. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Hull, Quebec. DNA-based population estimate for grizzly bears in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Arctic, 62: 312-316. COSEWIC Secretariatc/o Canadian Wildlife ServiceEnvironment CanadaOttawa, ONK1A 0H3, Tel. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? Mowat, G. and C. Strobeck. 1994), and DNA fingerprinting of hair follicles from bears attracted to baited barbed-wire snags (e.g., Woods et al. Unpublished report. 2. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence. Males, especially young males, are more likely than females to die of non-natural causes. Pest Management Report 15. L.-P. Tardif and Associates Inc., Nepean, Ontario, Canada. Stenhouse. Mol. June 2011. 2010). Leonard J.A., R.K. Wayne, and A. Cooper (2000) Population genetics of ice age brown bears. It is not possible to evaluate recent trends in Grizzly Bear population size over any period beyond the past 20 years (prior to 1991), which coincides with the advent of more modern methods of inventorying populations (in particular, DNA-mark-recapture methods). Servheen, C. and R.R. This expansion is likely neither a result of increased sightings due to rising numbers of people on the land, nor of bears moving closer to communities because of attractants such as refuse. Successful cross-matings in captivity have produced fertile offspring (Martin 1876, 1882; Kowalska 1962, 1965, 1969). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2008) have important potential implications for coastal Grizzly Bear populations, in light of the reliance of many on salmon as a principal food source and the fidelity of individuals to salmon streams (McHutchon et al. December 2010. 1995). Litter size is 1–3 cubs; litter size and litter survival depend on the availability of food. Ursus arctos. 2008). North American Fauna 41:1-136. Hotson, Christopher. (2012) documented larger-than-average genetic distances associated with the extensive icefields and glaciers along the coastal mountains of BC and Yukon, the interior mountain and plateau habitats in northern BC, and the heavily glaciated sections of the Continental Divide in Alberta and BC. Differences in estimates for broad jurisdictions may be related to genuine changes in bear numbers, or to estimating methodology, reporting precision, and new data. 2005; Nielsen et al. Métis Nation BC. Mattson, D.J. Many demographic processes have probabilistic components; hence, as a basic rule, the smaller the population, the greater the variation in birth and death rates, even if the underlying mean rates are not changing (Boyce 1992). 1997. 1993; Hilderbrand et al. For example, the Stein-Nahatlatch population is an isolated island of ~23 individuals and has lower genetic variability than any other mainland population in North America. Milton Freeman Research Ltd. 1976b. Approximate boundaries of the current and historic (i.e., 19th century) distribution of the Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos, in North America, with contours of relative density. Canadian Wildlife Service, Suite 301, 5204 - 50th Ave., Yellowknife NT X1A 1E2. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the North American brown bear and implications for conservation. Pages 33-38 in C. Servheen, S. Herrero, and B. Peyton, compilers. 1 Includes licensed sport and Aboriginal subsistence hunting.2 Any other type of kill, including, but not limited to, vehicular collision, accident, and research-related.3 Means from actual data. Chruszcz, B. A.P. Nantel, Patrick. 2006). 2008. McLellan, and J.G. Miller, S.D., G.C. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1640-1645. 2002. Who killed Mary? 1 Values reported in previous COSEWIC status report of Banci (1991). Ursus 10:343-347. From early August to mid-October, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Mattson, D.J., M.G. Gibeau, M.L. On the prairies, grizzlies lacked areas of shelter for retreat, so became accustomed to … In Nunavut, under s. 5.6.1. of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, each Inuk has the right to harvest Grizzly Bears up to the full level of his or her economic, social, and cultural needs. Scavenging of whale carcasses is known (Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) and the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee 2008). Gibeau, M.L., S. Herrero, B.N. 8 Includes all kills occurring in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Gwich’in Settlement Area, and remaining Northwest Territories. 2001), but consume relatively large amounts of vegetation. More recent genetic studies, however, have placed Polar Bears outside the Brown Bear clade, dating the divergence to the middle Pleistocene, about 600,000 years ago (Hailer et al. 2000). Bear feeding activity at alpine insect aggregation sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. 1998. It is not being double-counted elsewhere. 1989), and are important Moose predators in other areas as well (e.g., Gasaway et al. In addition to surviving long periods without food, Grizzly Bears exhibit behavioural adaptations that allow them to survive in a variety of environments. For example, Grizzly Bears have been most recently documented on northern Banks Island (Slavik 2010), travelling across ice on Holman Island (Slavik 2010), on the ice near Sachs Harbour (Ashford and Castleden 2001), crossing from the mainland to Victoria Island (Thorpe 2000), in Storis Passage (Ugjulik), on King William Island, and in the Gjoa Haven area in general (Keith and Arqviq 2006). Genetics 147:1943–1957. 1 Techniques for calculation of densities vary across studies, so comparisons must be made cautiously.2 Weighted means as reported by McLoughlin et al. Lefebvre, M. 1972. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2012.Catalogue No. 2011. Thesis. Robbins. McLellan, B.N. Bears. The presence of all known major interior Grizzly Bear foods, and the abundance of both Huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.) Pasitschniak-Arts, M. and F. Messier. 43 pp. Aurora Wildlife Research. Seip, D.C. Heard, R. Smith and D.W. Paetkau. McCullough, D. R. 1996.  However, that doesn't mean they won't enter towns and neighborhoods. McLoughlin et al. Genetic distances across developed valleys and major highways were elevated relative to those in undeveloped regions in central and northern BC (Proctor et al. Munro, R.H.M., S.E., Nielsen, M.H. No natural rescue effect from any source is likely possible for the extinct Ungava population. Apps, Clayton. McLellan. (2007), Environment Canada (2009), and ASRDACA (2010), although most of these depict coarse-scale “best guess” demarcations on maps based on sightings, mortality events, and/or perceived habitats with little to no confirmation of occupancy of these habitats over time. Derocher. Robbins, and T.A. Final Report. MacHutchon, A.G., S. Himmer, and C.A. (2004) observed that females dispersed 14.3 km and males dispersed 41.9 km from their natal home range. 4 pp. Johnson, C.J., M.S. 2010], although this use may be affected by traffic volume [Waller and Servheen 2005]). 18 pp+app. Food habits, body condition, and habitat of the barren-ground grizzly bear. Tomback, S.F. They also have the hump on their shoulders like that of grizzly bear. Age at primiparity and interbirth interval for female Grizzly Bears are variable and influenced by habitat quality (Hilderbrand et al. The region has a recent history of small, isolated and inbred populations that relates directly to the pattern of human activity, settlement and access. Arno, and R.E. Ho, S.C.Bray, M. Korsten, E. Tammeleht, M. Hindrikson, K. Østbye, E. Østbye, S-E. Lauritzen, J. Austin, A. Cooper, and U. Saarma. The highest densities are found in BC, particularly along the Rocky Mountains, e.g., in the valley of the Flathead River, and on the Pacific coast (e.g., Pacific Coast, Khutzeymateen Provincial Park) (Table 3). Ecological Applications 17: 1424-1440. Banci, V. 1991. Appendix 7 (PDF; 1.15 MB) – Traditional Land Use. Box 2120, Inuvik, NT X0E 0T0. Members of the Willow Lake Métis Local 780, based in Anzac, Alberta, indicated in summer 2009 that they had seen Grizzly Bears around the Connacher Great Divide SAGD Expansion Project area that were not there previously (Connacher Oil and Gas 2010). Variation in genetic diversity across the range of North American brown bears. Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? The average male black bear can range from about one hundred fifty pounds up to about five hundred fifty pounds. Contributions of Inuit ecological knowledge to understanding the impacts of climate change on the Bathurst Caribou Herd in the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut. Proctor, M. and L. Neumeier. On the other hand, McCann 1998 found that the southwestern Grizzly Bear population was in decline (i.e., point estimate of finite rate of increase of 0.97, or 3% per annum decrease with human-caused mortality rates increasing). Additionally, the attractants usually associated with human homes (refuse, pet food, livestock) dictate that bears with home ranges overlapping permanent human habitation are at elevated risk of mortality (McLellan 1994; Ciarniello et al. Specific to the BC-Alberta mountain national parks of Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, Yoho, Waterton Lakes, Mt. BCMEM and BCMFLNRO (Ministry of Energy and Mines and Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations). Elk, Cervus elaphus, calves as food for grizzly bears, Ursus arctos, in Banff National Park, Alberta. W. Stendell and E. von Martens, tom. West slopes bear research project. Swenson, J.E., F. Sandegren, S. Brunberg, and P. Wabakken. Macey, Anne. McLoughlin, P.D., and Messier, F. 2004. Cover illustration/photo: Grizzly Bear -- photo by Emily Court. Grizzly Bears may also be limited by availability of food and intraspecific predation, the latter of which may be density-dependent. 2004; Waller and Servheen 2005; Linke et al. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105:101-103. Based on a 500-bear annual kill (Table 6) and a conservative (low-end of jurisdictional population point estimates) population estimate of 26,000 bears for the Western DU, approximately 1.9% of the Grizzly Bears within the DU as a whole are killed by humans each year (Tables 5 vs. 6), although this number does not estimate unreported mortalities. In terms of significance of the Ungava DU, the loss of this population has resulted in an extensive gap in the species’ distribution in Canada, including elimination of the species from two provinces (Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador), and it is unlikely to be replaced through natural dispersal. Preparation of this report was funded by Environment Canada. These authors also note, however, that: “soon no memory of Grizzly Bears will remain among the people of the Ungava region, and the case for the bears’ former existence in northern Quebec and Labrador will have to be based solely on recovered faunal remains, historical accounts, and Cabot’s photograph from Long Pond (p. 14).” Stephen Loring noted of his ethnobiological survey in 2004: “...while older Innu recognized the association of matashu with a large brown bear and sometimes expressed surprise at the memory of the word, no one we talked to had much to say about its history or habits (Loring 2005).” The last recorded sighting was in 1948 (Wright 1962). 1994. Confirmed instances of Grizzly Bear presence in the Canadian Arctic archipelago and in east mainland Nunavut (observations are black circles, left, and white circles, right). The Grizzly Bear is commonly considered a flagship species for conservation planning (Carroll et al. Further, Grizzly Bears were probably not widely used as meat by Inuit because of the risk of trichinosis (Ryan 1981). Most northerly observation of a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in Canada: photographic and DNA evidence from Melville Island, Northwest Territories. Nagy, J.A., A.W.L. WMAC – NS, Whitehorse, Yukon. Fleishman, E. and R. Mac Nally. 5:567-575. Compared to the number of people who hunt ungulates, relatively few people hunt Grizzly Bears; however, the species is a highly prized trophy. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2003; Apps et al. 1918. Review of the grizzly and big brown bears of North America (genus Ursus) with the description of a new genus, Vetularctos. Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada? and Manage. Density-dependent population regulation of brown bears. and F.L. and W.F. The maximum fine for illegally killing a Grizzly Bear is $100,000 and six months in jail for a first offence. Écoscience 7: 123–130. Woods. Larsen, Karl. Carr, H.D. 2002. Further documentation supporting the former existence of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Quebec-Labrador. Range contraction in the contiguous United States has left six isolated populations south of Canada (including a possible population occupying the North Cascades of Washington), four of which persist along the Canada-US border (Proctor et al. 2006; Roever et al. 2003. Arctic 60:7-16. J. Craighead et al. (1995) did not observe any male bears less than 5 years of age copulating, and no males under 9 years were successful breeders (compared to females as young as 5 years breeding successfully). International Institute for Sustainable Development. Of particular importance to the significance criterion for DU status, there are no noted adaptations that appear unique to the Prairie Grizzly Bear compared to adjacent mountain-dwelling Grizzly Bears. (2003a). Conservation Biology 16: 1123-1136. These factors may influence bear population dynamics through survival or reproduction. Boyce. 2006). Undocumented killing remains an important problem for managers. 2008). Confronted only with risks due to natural mortality, adult Grizzly Bear survival is generally high (above 90% per year), with natural rates of cub and yearling survival being lower. 118pp. August 2010. Journal of Mammalogy 83: 188–198. Update COSEWIC status report on the grizzly bear Ursus arctos in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos in Canada. Habitat effects of timber harvest are dynamic, and depending on post-harvest treatments, bears may respond positively to early seral stages during revegetation of cutblocks. 37 (Update 2010). Cumulative effects of human developments on arctic wildlife. (2006). Thesis, Royal Roads University, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Physiographic and vegetative descriptions of habitat, using resource selection functions (RSFs) and remote sensing, exist for parts of Grizzly Bear range in Canada (McLoughlin et al. Darimont, N.F. Environmental Science Technology 39:6952-6960. Herrero, S. 2002. 2010). A population study was recently completed across the southwestern lobe of Grizzly Bear range, as defined by the southern Coast Ranges (Apps et al. 2011. Wildlife Biology 11: 31-48. Moreover, contrary to Waits et al.’s (1998) hypothesis that these clades were formed prior to the species’ migration into North America, mitochondrial DNA sequence variation from 7 permafrost-preserved bears revealed that these clades co-existed in Beringia 36,000 years ago (Leonard et al. Conservation Biology 12: 418-429. Grizzly Bears use refuse and livestock as food sources if they are available and accessible. Shepard, P. and B. Sanders. Hood, G. A., and K. L. Parker. These areas represent about 7.1% of the area of occupancy in Canada. The status and conservation of the bears of the world. Festa-Bianchet, Marco. 1991. Smithsonian fieldwork in Labrador: summary of 2004 fieldwork. B.C. En’owkin Centre, RR#2, Site 50, Comp. The species’ relationship with obligate predators is more one-sided; bears (Grizzly and Black) visited 24% of Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) kills in Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks, and displaced Mountain Lions from 10% of carcasses (Murphy et al. Banff National Park: science and policy in grizzly bear management. The sacred paw: the bear in nature, myth and literature. They will try to avoid humans as much as humans try to avoid them. Ottawa. Residents are only required to ensure that their personal harvest does not exceed a one Grizzly Bear in three years restriction. 2001. Figure 4. 2000). Shuswap Indian Band. The argument for DU status for the Ungava Grizzly Bear has merit in terms of discreteness because there is a natural disjunction with little or no anthropogenic barriers between it and the nearest population of Grizzly Bears, i.e., bears of the Western DU inhabiting mainland Nunavut. Traffic-related effects on bears may also include aerial transportation: there is some concern that activities that make use of helicopters in northern Canada are negatively affecting bears and hunters’ ability to hunt bears (Inuvik Community Corporation et al. 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