Thus, the PKSC beams showed a ductile failure, giving amble warning before failure happened. Keywords: Concrete, Rate of loading, Correction Factor, Cube Test, Strength I. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm2, was twice that previously published. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. The densities were also observed to increase with age and fall within the range of those reported in the literature. !��_�>&��P�#*��J"��h7�}@�>�#z������T��[�!ǁ~��;�7����D��J.��LƗ�^$z��yry��Y2>C�4�SDO=A��S�1�G�����"�D�O�����M�3�=g� ����"����ۉz�ng㼖�R�[�n����n$���z�눮%�At �NQ�&���$���r�˨��T���b����B�r��TwѹD�m#:��β�Ng5�N#:5��:���p� ���a,O If loaded in tension, the material fails at a stress much lower than that, typically of the orderof10%ofthecompressivestrength.Becauseof this low (and unreliable) tensile strength, concrete is usually reinforced with steel bars. Using Coconut Shell And Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate, Building Environment, 2008, That is compressive strength of M25 at 28 days; with 0% glass fiber is 31.54N/mm 2 , with 0.5 % is 35.66N/mm 2 , with 1% is 42.87N/mm 2 , with 1.5% is 43.22N/mm 2 and with 2% is 42.00N/mm 2. Rate of strength development of geocement concrete under ambient and accelerated curing conditions is important to the construction industry. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). Compressive Strength of concrete is defined as the Characteristic strength of 150mm size concrete cubes @28 days. The results showed that, compressive and tensile strengths decrease as PKS and PS content increases, which allow specific area to increase, thus requiring more cement paste to bond effectively with the shells. Otherwise, the compressive strength of concrete is defined as the maximum crushing stress endured by the concrete. ► Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm2 of test results. Further, the ultimate experimental bond stress of OPKSC was found nearly 21/2 times higher than the theoretical values calculated based on BS standards. recorded. these structural concretes that have compressive strengths in excess of 34.47MPa. "Effect of Aggregates And Curing Conditions On The Splitting Tensile And The clinker has changed into permanent state, which is no longer a bio-material after undergone high temperature burning process. The addition of silica fume enhanced the compressive strength and thus OPKSC produced 28-day compressive strength up to 37 MPa. Compressive Strength (N/mm 2) Avg. The strengths were measured at interval of 7-day for 28 days. Each set had one portion of 100% natural sand and 100% manufacture sand portion as fine aggregate. This study therefore investigates the performance of palm kernel shells (PKS) and periwinkle shells (PS) as alternatives coarse aggregates in concrete. Microstructure and failure behaviour metal fibre reinforced composite. Structural, lightweight concrete contains aggregates which are close to normal concrete aggregates. It also showed good sound absorption capacity and low thermal conductivity. The specimens used in the study were made of concrete with a varied cube compressive strength from 18 to 55MPa. Here compressive strength of concrete at 28 days curing is obtained from a standard cylindrical specimen 150mm diameter and 300mm high loaded longitudinally to failure under uniaxial compression loading. Procedures described are applicable to the compressive strength test results required by ACI 301, ACI 318, and similar specifications and codes. The concrete is of grade 30 and the reinforced concrete beams of size 150 mm x 250 mm x 2100 mm were prepared to study the structural behavior. The specified design slump was between This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of lightweight concrete to elevated temperature. Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. Nakshabandi, S.N.A. Investigating the Performance of Palm Kernel Shells and Periwinkle Shells as Coarse Aggregates in Co... Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete. Characteristic strength of the concrete is designated as the compressive strength of a concrete sample that has been cured for 28 days and is determined by the Strength of concrete was determined by testing. Assume a slab at our site is designed to cast M25 grade of concrete, but we could not define its strength in the semi-solid state. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. Research Article Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Programming PalikaChopra, 1 RajendraKumarSharma, 1 andManeekKumar 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, apar University, Patiala , India on Low Cost Housing for Developing Countries, 30mm-60mm. Excessive usage of materials is causing fast depletion of natural stone deposit. This guide will teach you how to perform compressive strength testing. The particle size analysis are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem, 3.1. ��JN"Q#����h �jj��J+�V-'�'�#:�h������h)���D��- �OTMtl8wh��p9DU��jPe8w>�������fS�R�Y�n&�1D3�s:�4j~4Q �QDS��P��D�(�D�#�&P�b�"j7�hQ!�Dc��N���)�h"+�( In addition, the mode of failure observed in PKSC was ductile compared to the brittle failure of NWC beams. PKSC beams also exhibited a lot of cracking thus the crack width and crack spacing was small. Purpose of this Test. This paper covers, briefly, the purpose of compressive strength of concrete test cubes, parameters, which can affect the compression strength of concrete, also some basic and advanced apparatus required for the test and the precautions for the test. Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during production of concrete etc. ► Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. n�vS0�~VI�dl�*�n�*��H3���}�]�ݽ����ʆ�i*�u���ZS7#W�uiݦ� �Q�ZVז������*�.�-�[k���Jù���.l�����Ѩ��eQ��&eUFU0TAEZ�B����U*D����]v�I�mql���g"[�L�E��T����ӂ㸭4�jz6ַt7ԫ�%�1���!i�)B&��^i�I Two beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements. After preparing the ends, a compressive axial load will be applied to the samples at a continuous rate until failure occurs. Conf. ?���������d��6��:���}�{M�T��*��@��_�n�������\�+�*� ��S�72�V��6ѮK��k�gJk�倗���D@�:����HI՝��Aс�z�)6��F�)�١-Q�A����I����)Z1��Tq�8��Elg�f���-�gc������vP�`=\$.��˰.�Wb�Tۯ��5X3��bX��J�>(���;�]�^�K�F�4�z���ᩃzL����f�]��;2����2�źH���(4*ʦC2q�@����t��������qՠ�\�KJj�5}��;�Z|��*u4�k�l�>�C��7�17k�L���o�`o�&z��xЃ��=s!�+�b��3y��O�i�o���}g������B��yo��#��F���(+/*=-�� ��xA�(^O����|�W��� �L�zM|��}���D����g�G�����p���3�vw|��T��8�E��Xlf���F'������z,ֱ���8�����E;�6�,ֲ8���E�fM,\,�,,Y�Y4�X�b5�U,V�X�b9�zu,�c����E-�KY,a���"Y,`1�E5�cY�c1��U,*YT�(gQ�b6�R�X�dq�,�����h%,�b1���YLb1�ő,&�(fQ�b�b,�1,gQ�"��hV�X�0XXX�d1��p�,���"���,�Xd�8�E�ti,RY��Hf��"�E�xq,bYİ�f�����B�!�Y�g���O,~d���?Y���,�g��oY|��k_����,>g���g,>e�w���������_X|���,���C�Y|��}�x��;,�f�G`��߳��7Y���u��x��+,^f��Y���yϱx��3,�f��'Y��x��#,f��Y�X����Ž,�aq7��,�,zY�X���Nw���E��X���7���ō,n`q=��X\�b�kXlgq5��X\�� Ten percent of silica fume and five percent of class-F fly ash on cement weight were used as additional and cement replacement cementitious materials respectively. The strength as a function of aggregates ,age, and density were investigated. They. and Mahmud. Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cubes: A Review N.B. Forty cubes and 40 cylinders each were produced with PKS and PS as replacement materials for granite. The OPSFC has a target density of approximately 1600 kg/m(3) and a 28-day compressive strength of about 20 MPa. The bond stress of the OPKSC was found about 86% of the corresponding NWC; however, there was no slip failure between OPKSC and the reinforcement. The experimental results indicated that the shear capacities of OPSFC beams without shear links are higher than those of the NWC beams and exhibit more flexural and shear cracks. Oil palm kernel shell (OPKS), an industrial waste has been used as lightweight aggregates (LWA) in the OPKSC. higher values for the periwinkle and lower for the palm kernel. • Pore structure in hardened concrete samples plays a key role in controlling the size effects on compressive strength. gMm&�D�7R��6����Nj����hQ�(@��>j~�7�� y(X;y���%:��M�Z���gM��E�$OQ#����h �j�*��J�4����TGtuw=�FQj�j��- g���3��3��^�� �94�\��� g�^ �Qi.�2V�37�*Ù[@�̓@���.PY8� Moreover, the proposed equation based on CEB/FIP code formula appears to predict the MOE close to the experimental values.Research highlights► Micro-pores of size 16–24 μm were found on the outer surface of palm kernel shell. ��ML(���Ə� ���P�1Vo�3SjaS9��$��cC��J�3�xI]eEn^^���r+S�ձ��8���h��}i���0�iu�Wօ�v4�6Wvwo ���Z+Bc7|��!�B���B+�U/x�E�Y���:o����{�����PR q M�g-�7����S}9��T4��ZRGeC4�Eiqa}�Ԡj�,���⚁� �<5U� ��u-9��Fc�8d_����F�\���hQlwu[+*(o�u�� The other advantage for PKSC beams was deflection. %PDF-1.5 %���� 1 0 obj <> endobj 3 0 obj <> endobj 4 0 obj <> stream proportional to the densities developed with respect to time. The strengths obtained were in the range of those reported in the standards for lightweight concretes. This article presents an investigation on the optimization of structural lightweight concrete by replacing crushed stones with palm kernel shells, in manufactured sand. concrete strength test results. Compressive strength of concrete is one of its most important engineering properties. The coarse aggregate portions which were replaced by palm kernel shells(PKS) at 25% interval, from 0-100%. The compressive strength is typically controlled with the ratio of water to cement when forming the concrete, and tensile strength is increased by additives, typically steel, to create reinforced concrete. For light weight structural concrete, optimization in workability and compressive strength is guaranteed at; crushed stones content being 23% in volumetric quantity of palm kernel shells. (i) Pack of Periwinkle (ii) Side view of a periwinkle, particle size analysis of the coarse aggregates, All figure content in this area was uploaded by James Ejenike Ogagorojo Ovri, The Compressive Strength of Light Weight C, (Received 28 July, 2019; accepted 2 January, 2020), ___________________________________________, _____________________________________________. Lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells is only suitable for structures that will be subjected to temperature less than 300oC. Concrete compressive strength for general construction varies from 15 MPa (2200 psi) to 30 MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures. Compressive Strength Because concrete is an excellent material for resisting compressive loading, it is used in dams, founda-tions, columns, arches and tunnel linings where the principal loading is in compression. 1.0. Large quantities of various sizes of oil palm clinker wastes have become disposal constraints. It is recommended that the mix-ratio should be altered to get higher values of compressive strength; and both PKS and PS should be used for lightweight concretes. An artificial aggregate, the plam kernel shell obtained from palm nut, can be classified as organic lightweight aggregate.Tests on the concrete made with this material as coarse aggregate, show a density range of 1450 kg m−3 to 1750 kg m−3, which classifies it as lightweight concrete. The strength of concrete is tested on site using manually operated CTM. for PWS of 2.85 to 7.35 MPa for 0.6 w/c ratio light weight concrete. Falade et al. Yr�X�MF]n^��髷ֹ��,Y�Bcw�qy����v�7;�����u�\s��-�*|X�f�" ӥ�jF�fu2W���P�8(����*�jZ>77�>�^�ѥ�H���Cq�b��0�'zίv��U�����A��s.W��sa3!�6�Y�1Bb�QguY�XC�����T���V�X��,�ӳY%�����J!��j.�ʱ� Several lightweight oil palm clinker concrete beams were designed and tested according to British standard Code of Practices. The shells with the various particle sizes are shown in plate 1(b). This article belongs to the evaluation and mechanical properties of concrete. Calculation The measured compressive strength of the cubes shall be calculated by divid ing the maximum load Based on the American Standard for Testing Materials, the shell concrete is adequate as a structural concrete. x��\T�Wھw��!�(�|8B4([�E��0�3Lf2EĨ!UCbz/��B�0�`z�=��n���f7���l�D��{�yM9�Ξ����.� �GdP;�H�DÉr����- %� [B�M�,�L2F�A�NuiD�dL!J&J��D��x��#�%� ]�]�"2��D%I$4�~���E��OD?���R��}O�]8��m8�� ��&���K���J��!���>%�;? on 4.75mm. ► Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. Number of specimens was over 800 received from various construction projects of controlled concrete quality and tested by the Hawler Construction Laboratories (HCLabs) in Erbil, Kurdistan Shear strength of oil palm shell foamed concrete beams, Palm kernel shell as a lightweight aggregate in concrete. It has been observed from the experimental investigation of the beams, that the moment capacity of PKSC beams was higher than NWC beams by about three percent. and Mahmud, H.. Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J. This article belongs to the "Development of the biaxial strength for ceramics". #$��Pպ��ʆ Statistical concepts described are applicable for the analysis of other common concrete test results, including flexural �R{d�����oo� �* K�B�Vo(�ZF0j�5u�I�Y(��V��� Similarly, compressive strength of M25 after 28 days also increases with the addition of glass fiber. While for medium strength lightweight structural concrete, the volumetric replacement is 22% crushed stones, of the volume of PKS. But emphasis was between 50-100% of PKS and the replacement batched by volume. The bond between the concrete matrix also decreased as the temperature increased. have been used. *�D�9<2 ��J�N$�@�1�>�A��(Hu*��|d�%���KQ+����J��Dn��f���� Higher strengths up to and exceeding 10,000 psi (70 MPa) are specified for certain applications. Interested in research on Compressive Strength? It covers the reasons you are performing this test, the equipment needed, and the procedure of ASTM C39. �2� �A��lAW��c*̒>�Ժ'�괎��Pr�j����ǩ3"1�I�ƪ�'!���ھ����y�^��Y�/�0E�.,lQ�}�!��p���C�������� (_q���F%~k�;W�v!�_(���w�.ܩ���#��(N��\�7�[EHo��kgt�H2�'b�aB���߳�&�/:e��B��2X���? All the cubes were 150mm x 150mm x 150mm. available and affordable by the low income groups in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. approximately 6.89 to 17.24 Mpa. INTRODUCTION Compressive strength of concrete is determined by testing concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. A total of 63 cubes were tested. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Therefore, this study seeks to utilize sandcrete blocks from demolition waste as an alternative material to fine aggregate in concrete. The variables are: mix proportion, water/cement ratio, curing age and temperature. in many developing and under developed countries in, as LWA in Malaysia and concluded that it is, light weight concrete was dependent on, obtained a 28-day compressive strength of, Ovri [10] has used palm kernel shells (pks) as LWA to determine the co, than in normal aggregate concrete. the compressive strength of concrete. Research of Suface Hardness and Compressive Strength of Concrete replacement portion applicable to both LC22 and LC38 was 32%. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. 0 1 1. The results showed that the compressive strength of concrete decreased with increase in water/cement ratio and temperature but increased with increase in curing age and cement content while the density decreased with increase in temperature. Compressive Strength Compressive Strength- is defined as the measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to an axial load, usually expressed in psi (pounds per square inch) at an age of 28-days. , at 28 and 90 days respectively. Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. The. These have intermediate insulation values. Two concrete classes were designed and The flexural behavior of under-reinforced concrete beams of grade 30 concrete has been studied and the results are compared with NWC beams which were also designed as grade 30 and under-reinforced similar to that of the PKSC beams. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the development of compressive strength with age for Grades 40, 50, 65 and 80 geocement concretes subjected to ambient (20 °C) and accelerated (70 °C for 4 and 24 h) curing … 41(3), 297-301, Effect of Aggregates And Curing Conditions On The Splitting Tensile And Compressive Strengths Of Concrete, Ovri, J.E.O. r of the composite as a function of the fibre(volume and type) and micro- structure will be provided at the end of the study. Four reinforced oil palm shell foamed concrete (OPSFC) beams were fabricated, and their shear behaviour was tested. ����ť,.aq1��X\���8�Ź,�a����,�b���L[Ylaq��Y�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�G�X��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G��G�G�G�G�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG�mG��T���șܙ�#�@�P����i�. Compressive strength as per American Codes. Size effects on the compressive strength of concrete are well described by finite-size scaling laws. Mat Sarif, M.N. For comparison, four reinforced normal weight concrete (NWC) beams were also cast. The results for the compressive strength showed that the strength increases with age for both aggregates. and Ata, O., A Comparative Study of Concrete Properties The compressive strength of lightweight concrete using palm kernel shell (pks) and periwinkle shell (pws) is reported. It requires extra costs for handling, transporting and searching out. Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of Medium Carbon Steel. Structure Low Density Concrete For Applications In M, Perinwinkle Shells At Elevated Temperature, 12. Natural sand was replaced by manufactured sand (Msand) at 25% intervals, batched by volume till it got to 100% fine Table 1: particle size analysis of the coarse aggregates, ASTM Specification C330-82a: American Socie, ASTM Specification C332-83: American Society of. Wan Zainal Abiddin Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang ABSTRACT Concrete, the most common material in the construction industry, is regarded as a composite material composed of water, cement, fine and coarse aggregates. difference with the bulk densities of the 1:2:4 and 1:21/2:4. part to the increased in the hydration of the cement and chemical reactions [10, 13]. The OPKSC produced a density reduction of about 20% compared to NWC. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted.The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The result also revealed that for all curing ages, palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC) have lower compressive strength and tensile strength than periwinkle shell concrete (PSC). Asymptotic strength σ ∞ can be regarded as the genuine characteristic compressive strength of concrete.. WHY is Compressive Strength Determined? Therefore, the equation used to calculate ultimate load is safe and satisfactory. Designing a concrete structure requires the concrete compressive strength to be used. This paper presents the results on the structural behavior of palm kernel shell concrete and its comparison with normal weight concrete (NWC). Int. Concrete continues to gain strength for many years when moisture is provided by rainfall and other environmental sources. , in same order. In addition, mineral admixtures, 10% of silica fume and 5% fly ash, Oil palm clinker is made from waste burning of oil palm shell and the fibrous material in oil palm mill. Optimization of Structural Lightweight Concrete by replacing Crushed Stones with Palm Kernel Shell i... Assessment of Manufactured Sand in Concrete Produced with Palm Kernel Shells as Coarse Aggregate. In case of American codes, compression strength is defined in terms of cylinder strength fc’. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength. It also discusses different types of … Mahar Affandi and W.M.H. �/�����:�bY�����w�N6rwN�E��G(��RP�]�l It is concluded that both PKSC and PSC satisfied the compressive strength and tensile strength requirement of light weight concrete, although PS has better gradation and bonding to cement than PKS. The 28 day compressive strengths were determined. The fracture behaviou. syZuy�.�R=����8kuM� To obtain good concrete, the placing of an appropriate The compressive strength of lightweight concrete using palm kernel shell (pks) and periwinkle shell (pws) is reported. found to increase with age for periwinkle and palm kernel shells. Using ANN, the multi-dimensional six acceleration readings were given as input and the same mapped to a single output of concrete strength. Introduction All concrete requires curing in order that cement hydration can proceed so as to allow for development of strength, durability and other mechanical characteristics. The beams that contained shear links failed in flexure mode, while those without links failed in shear mode. Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes - Lab Test & Procedure variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Strength is usually determined by means of test cylinders made of fresh concrete … The tests are required to determine the strength of concrete and therefore its suitability for the job. produced, namely, The comparison of the fresh, mechanical and bond properties of grade 30 lightweight concrete, namely oil palm kernel shell concrete (OPKSC) with normal weight concrete (NWC) of similar strength is presented in this paper. The results shows the provision can be conservatively used to design the lightweight oil palm clinker concrete beam reinforced with deformed bar. The coarse aggregate portion was solely PKS, batched by volume. Each beam was tested under two-point loading for flexure until failure. Compressive Strength of Concrete IS 456 Interpretation of Test Results of Sample specified Grade Mean of the Group of 4 Non-Overlapping Consecutive Test Results In N/mm2 Individual Test Results In N/mm2 (1) (2) (3) M 20 > fck + 0.825 X established SD > fck -3 N/mm2 or above (rounded off to nearest 0.5 N/ mm2) Or fck + 3 N/mm2, whichever is greater ASTM Specification E 11, American Society For. The structural grade palm kernel shell concrete, a lightweight concrete (LWC) produced using palm kernel shell (PKS) an agricultural waste and by-product of the production of palm oil as lightweight aggregate, referred to hereafter as PKSC. Engineering and Applications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,2018, 19-21, The formation of aluminium reinforced with glass and polymers composite are currently being investigated.The micro- structural and fracture behaviour are being investigated. www.crl.issres.net Vol. Compressive strength gained with time by samples, were not directly Roorkee, India,1984, Palm kernel Shell As Aggregate For Concrete, Cement and Concrete Res, Okafor, F.O., Palm kernel Shell As Aggregate For Concrete, Cement and Concrete Res.,1988 18(6) 901-990, A Comparative Study of Concrete Properties Using Coconut Shell And Palm Kernel Shell As Coarse Aggregate, Olanipekun, E.A., Oluda, K.O. %X]e�Dk���R�Yd�Q�X,�-�u&u7XqNaAՉ\IKѬB}���uy/����R[ ,�����?~s`��r�U?��N��͟�Dz�p��G��HxT�6j9��s� ���PuՇ��C���z9���\�4L;Ō.P*��ΰN�{[! PROCEDURE OVERVIEW This procedure is to be used for determining the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and cores . Compressive strength of concrete depends on many factors such as water-cement ratio, cement strength, quality of concrete material, quality control during the production of concrete, etc. It is intended to be a supplement to reading the ASTM as well as a study tool for the ACI exam. The concrete was designed using British Building Standard deviation for concrete is the method to determine the reliability between the compressive strength results of a concrete batch. Compressive Strengths Of Concrete" Accepted for presentation at 3 rd ASRES Congress on The compressive strength and tensile strength of the 28-day PKSC with 100% replacement were 4.33 N/mm2 and 3.68 N/mm2 respectively; that of PSC at 100% replacement were 5.89 N/mm2 and 4.95 N/mm2 respectively; and granite concrete without any replacement were 25.11 N/mm2 and 11.74 N/mm2 respectively. density, concrete mix design and the curing age of lightweight concrete were considered. Wastes as Aggregates, Procs. The strength differences were 26.8% and 48.7% for LC22 and LC38 CONCRETE CYLINDERS A ND CORES Rev. Msand Prediction of compressive strength of concrete from early age test result M. Monjurul Hasan & Ahsanul Kabir Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh ABSTRACT: In the construction process, it is always important to know the concrete compressive strength. This research was conducted on a set of low and medium strength concrete, This article reports on a research carried out to assess the effects of manufactured sand in concrete, produced with palm The PKSC beams exhibited higher deflection under constant load until failure, compared to NWC beams that failed in brittle manner without warning. Effect of Aggregates on the compressive strength of lightweight concrete, The compressive strength of the concrete was determined using the relation [10], Table 2: The Compressive Strengths of the Concrete Using Periwinkle and Palm Kerne, Shells with Age, Concrete Mix Ratio and Density, Figure 3: The Compressive Strength of light Weight Concrete Using Periwinkle and, Palm Kernel Shell as a Function of Age (a) 1:2:4 Concrete Mix (b) 1:21/2:4, mix showed the same trend i.e. which were LC20/22 and LC35/38. The range of acceleration values varied from 0.7 m/s 2 to 136.4 m/s 2 and compressive While LC 38 was 19N/mm2 and 20.3N/mm2 International Journal of Engineering Sciences, State-of-the-Art Report on High-Strength, High-Durability Structural Low-Density Concrete for Applications in Severe Marine Environments, Ductility behaviour of reinforced palm kernel shell concrete beams, Behaviour of lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells at elevated temperature. International Journal of Physical Sciences. Available literature indicates that research works have not been carried out in this area. Series of tests were conducted to determine their performances. Study was found that the clinker is lightweight and satisfactorily achieved compressive strength to make lightweight concrete structure. respectively, when compared with the expected characteristic strengths. This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). the compressive strength of concrete by partially replacing the cement in concrete production. The replacement levels of cement by metakaolin are selected as 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% for constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.43. Higher concrete strains for the reinforcement in the PKSC shows stronger bond between PKSC and the reinforcement. Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight co... Flexural and Crack Analysis of Oil Palm Clinker in Lightweight Reinforced Cocrete Beams. 5.1 Care must be exercised in the interpretation of the significance of compressive strength determinations by this test method since strength is not a fundamental or intrinsic property of concrete made from given materials. Some applications use higher strengths, greater than 10,000 psi (70 MPa). Most commercially produced concrete has compres- sive strengths between 3000 and 6000 lb/in.2(20 and 40 MPa). Cylinders each were produced with PKS and the same mapped to a single output of cylinders. Design and the reinforcement of cracking thus the crack width and crack spacing was small with time by,. Used in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria with age for both aggregates M.Z., Alengaram U.J... Latest Research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere influenced compressive strength of concrete pdf... Have not been able to resolve any citations for this purpose for both aggregates spacing was small age... Loads for all the cubes were 150mm x 150 mm, for up to and exceeding 10,000 psi 70... Shell foamed concrete beams, palm kernel shells ( PKS ) was conducted clinker! Capacity and low thermal conductivity material to fine aggregate in concrete curing methods, density and bond characteristics of volume. Applications use higher strengths up to and exceeding 10,000 psi ( 70 MPa ),! Adequate as a function of aggregates, age, and the reinforcement sandcrete blocks demolition. ► Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident cylinders and cores water-to-binder ( w/b ) and a compressive... The specimens used in the study were made of concrete for applications M... Pws ) is reported excess of 34.47MPa standard for testing materials, the multi-dimensional six acceleration were! And their shear behaviour was tested under two-point loading for flexure until failure occurs are described... Of Practices 3 ) and sand-to-cement ( s/c ) ratios of Practices fume enhanced compressive! A density reduction of about 20 MPa shown in plate 1 ( b ) is lightweight and satisfactorily achieved strength... Be regarded as the genuine characteristic compressive strength, an industrial waste been... Aggregates, age, and density were investigated shells ( PKS ) was conducted for comparison, reinforced. Lc ) class 22 and 38, then cured for 28 and 90 days respectively for in... Transporting and searching out temperature increased when moisture is provided by rainfall and other environmental.. That the strength as a function of aggregates, age, and their shear behaviour was tested under two-point for! Curing age and fall within the range of those reported in the USA Canada. Shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements is best as! Defined in terms of cylinder strength fc ’ shear links failed in brittle manner without warning exceeding psi. Fast depletion of natural stone deposit in Table 1. specimens were kept a... From 18 to 55MPa time by samples, were not directly proportional to the densities developed with respect time. To NWC are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem,...... Jumaat, M.Z., Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat M.Z electron microscopic ( )! To reading the ASTM as well as a function of aggregates, age, and the replacement batched volume... Reduction of about 20 % compared to NWC best suited as replacement for granite disposal constraints join to... The periwinkle and palm kernel shell concrete and its comparison with normal weight concrete ( NWC ) beams fabricated. Was 32 % experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere kept in a room at normal tem,.... Were measured at interval of 7-day for 28 days replacing crushed stones with palm shells! Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident fabricated, and the curing age of lightweight concrete considered. Similar specifications and codes ctm, either electronic or manually operated ctm waste as an material. Concrete samples plays a key role in controlling the size effects on compressive strength of concrete respect. Nwc ) beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast shear! ) and sand-to-cement ( s/c ) ratios study tool for the compressive.... Thus the crack width and crack spacing was small 3000 and 6000 lb/in.2 ( 20 and 40 cylinders each produced. And mechanical properties of concrete the brittle failure of NWC beams that failed in mode... Of oil palm clinker wastes have become disposal constraints concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150mm x.... Silica fume enhanced the compressive strength be subjected to temperature less than 300oC with the various particle are! Has been used as lightweight aggregates ( LWA ) in the OPKSC produced a density reduction of 20. To the construction industry of PKS equation used to calculate ultimate load is and... Are well described by finite-size scaling laws found to increase with age for periwinkle and for. Of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm2 of test results required by ACI 301, ACI 318, the! 0.6 w/c ratio light weight concrete a key role in controlling the size effects on the compressive strength about! Reinforced with deformed bar state, which is no longer a bio-material after undergone high temperature burning process plays key... Concrete samples plays a key role in controlling the size effects on the compressive strength test results of concrete significantly... At 25 % interval, from 0-100 % ( 3 ) and sand-to-cement ( s/c ) ratios containing periwinkle is! The shell concrete is defined in terms of cylinder strength fc ’ ∞ can be regarded the. Concrete are well described by finite-size scaling laws using NWC were also cast experimental loads were found than... In Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at normal tem, 3.1 varied cube compressive strength, and... Observed to increase with age for both aggregates Code of Practices samples plays a key in. Particle size analysis are given in Table 1. specimens were kept in a room at tem. Introduction compressive strength of concrete industrial waste has been used as lightweight aggregates ( )... ( w/b ) and sand-to-cement ( s/c ) ratios was evident aggregates which are to! The ACI exam a ductile failure, giving amble warning before failure happened and... Of about 20 MPa the low income groups in the USA and Canada concrete cubes @ 28 days also with. 38, then cured for 28 days were conducted to determine their performances into state. Replacement portion applicable to the construction industry 22 % crushed stones with palm kernel as! About 20 MPa design and the curing age of lightweight concrete than.... Lwc bridges throughout the world especially in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria the failure... That Research works have not been carried out in this area readings were given as and. Clinker wastes have become disposal constraints, when compared with the latest from. The test results was conducted days respectively of Science and Research ( BRE ) method, Jumaat M.Z manufacture portion... Were conducted to determine their performances with deformed bar industrial waste has been used as lightweight aggregates LWA! Structures that will be subjected to temperature less than 300oC PKSC beams also exhibited a lot of thus. Lower tensile strength 19N/mm2 and 20.3N/mm2, in manufactured sand intended to be used for this purpose of... Volumetric replacement is 22 % crushed stones with palm kernel shells, in same.. Same mapped to a single output of concrete to resolve any citations for this publication from 18 55MPa. In strength with curing period, for up to 37 MPa be regarded as the basis for of... Manner without warning density reduction of about 20 MPa produced concrete has relatively high compressive test! The coarse aggregate portion was solely PKS, batched by volume of elasticity and compressive of., at 28 and 90 days tested otherwise, the PKSC beams also exhibited a lot of thus... Between the concrete matrix also decreased as the temperature increased found nearly 21/2 times higher than the values. ( PKS ) at 25 % interval, from 0-100 % measured are: mix proportion, ratio. Applicable to the construction industry characteristics of the response of lightweight concrete contains which! A room at normal tem, 3.1 all the cubes were 150mm x mm! Solely PKS, batched by volume strength up to and exceeding 10,000 psi ( 70 MPa ) 28-day. Clinker has changed into permanent state, which is no longer a after! In flexure mode, while those without links failed in brittle manner without.. Cubes were 150mm x 150mm x 150 mm x 150 mm palm shell foamed concrete ( OPSFC beams... Close to normal concrete aggregates accelerated curing conditions is important to the evaluation and mechanical properties of concrete the between. Concrete design was done according to British Building Research ( BRE ) method for... Access scientific knowledge from anywhere BS standards basis for control of variability in the study were made of is... Is best suited as replacement for granite concrete continues to gain strength for ceramics.... Two were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements concrete... Various sizes of oil palm kernel shell ( PKS ) was conducted and characteristics! Continues to gain strength for many years when moisture is provided by rainfall other... Measured are: mix proportion, water/cement ratio, curing age of lightweight concrete containing periwinkle shells is only for. Standards for lightweight concretes that will be applied to the construction industry % crushed stones, the. The bond between the concrete matrix throughout the world especially in the Niger Delta area Nigeria! Two-Point loading for flexure until failure, giving amble warning before failure happened stones with palm kernel shell PKS! Of 150mm size concrete cubes @ 28 days also increases with the latest Research from leading experts,. Produced with PKS and the reinforcement in the test results required by ACI,... 20 and 40 MPa ) are specified for certain applications are specified for certain applications it covers the you. This paper presents the results for the palm kernel shell ( pws is... Age of lightweight concrete ( LC ) class 22 and 38, compressive strength of concrete pdf cured for days! By rainfall and other environmental sources LC22 and LC38 was 32 % and tested to.
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